Every few days, someone on the Linux users group on Facebook posts a question that goes something like this: “I’m new to Linux. Can you recommend a good distribution for blah?” Where blah is usually something like gaming, media, or learning Linux. Like many people who are new to Linux, when I was first exploring the Linux world, I tried out a lot of distros. Eventually, I came to the conclusion that it doesn’t matter which distro you choose. I’ll explain a bit more about what a distro is, what kinds there are, and why it does and doesn’t matter, below.
What is a Distribution?
It’s hidden right in the name, but it’s not immediately obvious: a distribution of Linux is the Linux kernel, packaged up and distributed in a usable form. Linux, by itself, is just a kernel: the part of an operating system that manages the hardware, and provides interfaces for the various pieces of software and hardware that make the computer usable. If you were to just boot the kernel all by itself, the machine would start and do nothing. It would spin the fans and hard disks faster or slower, handle new device connections, and maybe even accept user input, but the computer wouldn’t be usable, because the software that interacts with the user (you) is not part of the kernel – no text terminal, no on screen menus or mouse pointer, no nothing. Once the kernel is running, it spawns other programs that handle user interaction. This is a basic model of operating systems.
So, apart from some basic patches and alterations that the makers of Linux distros might make to their specific release of the kernel, the underlying kernel is basically the same from distro to distro. The difference is in the software they install around it, and that’s also one of the reasons Linux is more customizable than any other popular operating system today. For example, there are quite a few different graphical interfaces that support Linux: KDE*, Gnome, Unity, XFCE – these are all visually different interfaces that function differently. And that’s just a very, very small portion of the desktop environments available. So two different distros with the exact same kernel can look and behave very differently on the surface. This is, to a large extent, how various Linux distros differ: the packages included with the base system, and their initial configurations. Ubuntu and Kubuntu, for example, are two distinct distros, yet they are mostly the same except that Ubuntu ships with the Unity desktop environment, and Kubuntu ships with KDE. One could easily uninstall Unity from Ubuntu and install KDE.
Major Differences: Package Management
Arguably the most fundamental distinction between various distros is the way they facilitate software installation. On a base Linux system with no package manager, the way you install packages is by copying the executable binary and it’s shared objects to the proper locations. This isn’t the easiest or most convenient thing to do, as it doesn’t allow you to easily keep track of what software package is installed where, or what version it is. So most Linux distributions ship with a package manager like apt (Debian-based), yum (Red Hat), portage (Gentoo), or pacman (Arch). These package managers will not only install packages from a central repository – all of which has been checked so that it is compatible with all the other software in the repository – but they will install all the dependencies as well. Everyone who has ever tried to install a package from source on a freshly installed system will tell you that this is a great relief, and saves hours of hunting online for tarballs**.
Which package manager you choose is largely a matter of preference, and this is the basis on which I think you should make your decision. Debian-based distributions come with “apt”, which is – from my biased perspective – a reliable, relatively easy to use package manager. Distribution upgrades (i.e. major upgrades) can be done without nuking the system and starting over, it has support for multiple architectures on the same system (e.g. installing 32-bit packages on a 64-bit machine), and is pretty painless. Even the most frustrating problems can sometimes be solved by throwing around a bunch of apt commands semi-brainlessly.
Red-Hat/Fedora-like distributions (like RHEL, Fedora, OpenSuSE, CentOS, and Oracle Linux) use “yum”, which installs rpm files. The last time I used yum was years ago, so my opinion isn’t worth much in this regard. I’ve heard that you have to nuke a Fedora system in order to do a distribution upgrade – that is, you have to do major upgrades by wiping the system and starting over – but I don’t know if that’s the case anymore. If you’re a beginner, I’d recommend using one of the other options, but this is my wholly biased opinion; take it with a grain of salt (and maybe a trial of Fedora on a VM).
Gentoo (and probably some other distros based on Gentoo) use “portage”. Portage is pretty freaking cool, in that it compiles every single package from scratch. It’s a somewhat agonizing experience (although not as much so on today’s faster machines), especially if you want to install a huge software package like KDE. But the benefit of doing things this way is that every binary on your system is optimized specifically for the box sitting in front of you (or under your desk, or wherever it is you have the thing). It’s more useful if you actually know what you’re doing, and can manipulate the various compiler flags effectively, but I’m sure there’s some speed-up even if you don’t entirely know what’s going on under the hood. Gentoo is my favorite distro for learning the ins and outs of Linux, and if you’re a first-timer and really want to dive into Linux and get a good head start, I can’t recommend enough that you take the time to do a full, manual, Gentoo install. Just… uh… don’t be discouraged if you fail the first time. Or the second. You’ll learn a TON, trust me.
My experience with other package managers like pacman is minimal. I used Arch for a while, and it’s a very nice distro. It’s something of the best of both worlds between Gentoo and more user-friendly distros like Debian.
The Internet is replete with smaller distros with funny names, and there are too many to mention. Most of them are offshoots of one of the main distributions I’ve described above, with various configuration changes. There are some medium size distributions as well (Linux Mint, Puppy Linux, etc) which tend to do a pretty decent job, and are sometimes designed for very specific situations Puppy Linux and Damn Small Linux, for example, are designed to be very small and light weight, and are especially useful for booting from a CD or USB key to do system repairs. Linux Mint, in particular, is a refreshing spin on Ubuntu. I tend not to trust the really small distros though (the ones you’ve never heard of with websites straight out of the 90’s), because I’m dubious as to whether they’ll continue to be supported in the future, and whether they’ve been tested thoroughly. There are probably good ones out there, I just don’t shop around too much anymore.
In many ways, it all comes down to choices, and the number of them you want to make. If what you want is a plug-and-play operating system that isn’t Windows or Mac OS X, go with Ubuntu, Linux Mint, Fedora, or a similar distro that has a one-and-done type install: you pop the disk in the drive, set up your language, time zone, and login credentials, and away you go. These distros have default packages that support most of your day-to-day needs, and it’s fairly easy to install components that aren’t pre-installed. They work on most of the common hardware out of the box, and they have a lot of online support options.
If, on the other hand, you want to make the choices yourself, choose a distro like Gentoo, Arch, or Debian. Gentoo and Arch, in particular, don’t even choose a default desktop environment for you, so you can choose any configuration you want right from the beginning without having to undo someone else’s work. One time, I installed Gentoo only to realize that I had disabled the kernel configuration for my hard drive controller, so the system couldn’t boot: that’s how much control you have. Debian has some base packages that install a very minimal system, as well as some options that will install a lot of common packages for you. It’s more immediately usable than the other two, but allows you to install a minimal system if you want.
At the far end of the spectrum of choices is LFS: Linux From Scratch. You compile the kernel from scratch, and gradually start loading things on the disk until you have a working operating system. I’ve never done this, but it’s always been in the back of my mind. You can find resources for doing that here: http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/
One last thing I want to mention is stability. Stability is probably the other most important dimension of a distro, and I would be remiss if I didn’t talk about it just a bit. If you’re cycling through different distros exploring the Linux world, you might not care too much about stability. Honestly, if you play around with things enough, you’re going to wreck your distro no matter how stable it is. But if you’re looking installing Linux on a machine you care about, stability is very important.
Because the distro packagers are usually on the same team (or are the same people) as the people who maintain their distro’s package repositories, their attitudes and values contribute to how stable the resulting collection of packages will be. Debian, for example, is know for being fairly conservative and FLOSS (Free Libre Open Source Software) fanatical, which makes for a very stable, very reliable system, and makes it a bit harder to install proprietary software (not much harder, though.) Ubuntu, on the other hand, is less gun-shy, and uses more up to date packages at the expense of a slightly increased probability that their packages will have unresolved bugs. It’s worth doing some research to find out the attitude of a perspective distribution’s repository maintainers before making your final choice.
Stability is the main reason I forsook Ubuntu years ago, and now only use Debian. Ubuntu is the only operating system I have ever installed (aside from Windows) which has crashed during or right after installation***. It’s a great distro that is paving the way for lots of innovation and publicity in the Linux and Open-Source world, and it has become a stepping stone (at the very least) for new users, but I don’t like the way they do choose their packages, and the default packages that are installed. And, if I’m honest, even though it’s a small and easily fixable issue, Unity absolutely drives me up the wall.
Hopefully this will help you choose the distro that’s right for you. You should play around with a few of them and read up on them (Wikipedia is a great place to do this) before picking the one you intend to use for ever and ever… and always know that you can change your mind at any time. As you learn to use Linux, you’ll likely realize that you wish you had done certain things differently during your installation, so you’ll likely be itching to re-install after a while anyway.
If you’re curious, as you might already have guessed, I install Debian on everything I get my hands on: my desktop, my parents computers, Raspberry Pis – hell, I’d install it on my toaster if I could. After administrating around 20 Debian machines during my two years as a SysAdmin, I’ve come to appreciate its elegant simplicity and robustness, and I wouldn’t replace it with Ubuntu if you paid me. But that’s just my opinion; I encourage you to draw your own.
*It has been pointed out – and rightly so – that the K Desktop Environment (formerly referred to as simply “KDE”) is now properly called “KDE SC”, for “KDE Software Compilation”. For simplicity, however, and since it is still referred to in the Debian repository and popularly as KDE, I’ve left the incorrect acronym as is.
**A member of the Linux Facebook group pointed out that newcomers to Linux might not know what a “tarball” is. Tarball is slang for an archive compressed using the unix tar utility, usually with the extensions .tar, .tar.gz, or .tar.bz2. Source code for many open source packages come packaged in a tar archive.
***It’s true, I’ve had many a Gentoo installation crash on me on or before startup, but that was always because I had done something stupid, and was entirely my fault. The same opportunity doesn’t really exist in Ubuntu; I’ve had installations crash once, and succeed after installing again with the same options for no discernible reason.